Monthly Archives: October 2016

Tourism Governance in Mexico, evidence from the Yucatan Peninsula | Mexico


By: Matilde Córdoba Azcárate

Main characteristics

  • Tourism governance dates from 1970s
  • State led
  • Top-down approach
  • Federal public policy of Integrally Planned Centers (CIPs in Spanish)
  • Tourism vehicle for development
  • Development as straightforward modernization
  • Different development discourses, different tourism modalities, different actors but same logic of tourism as vector to attract foreign capital


(1970s-mid 1980s)  Mass Tourism Model

  • CIPs public policy is born
  • Confluence of Harvard economists, international agencies and national banks
  • Informed by creation of export processing zones in North or country
  • Turn to coastal tourism
  • Beaches as assets to attract foreign capital
  • Through oceanfront infrastructure development
  • Progressive delegation of tourism governance from government to real estate and hotel transnational actors

(mid 1980s- 1990s) Cultural and Natural tourism models

  • Sustainable and responsible development discourses incorporated into tourism governance
  • Cultural tourism: archeological ruins
  • Natural tourism: in Natural Protected Areas
  • Still, tourism conceived as vector of development as straightforward modernization
  • UNESCO and clientelar local, regional networks enter tourism governance

(early 2000-…) Existential tourism modalities

  • Discourses of luxury, care and empowerment incorporated into tourism governance
  • Hacienda tourism
  • Indigenous Luxury Tourism
  • Pueblos Mágicos
  • Tailored to specific elite segments of tourism industry
  • Philanthropic enterprises as part of tourism governance


Tourism Governance Mexico

  • Still in its majority state led, top down
  • Tourism as development
  • Under different development rhetoric: modernization, sustainability, participation, empowerment
  • Controlled tourism imaginary & material transformation of space
  • Advance different gazes: escape, encounter, contribute
  • Demand building particular stages: beach, past, biodiversity, cosmopolitanism
  • Different alliances between government, private, transnational and philanthropic actors
  • Result in similar social and spatial segregation as the one envisaged in the CIPs
  • Evidence from the Yucatan Peninsula



Tourism in Oman: Context & Background | Oman


By: Amna Alruheili

Oman Background:

Location: Oman located in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

Government: Central, Parliamentary & Monarchy

GDP(2016 estimates):  Total ($51.679 billion). Per capita ($20,059 )

GDP by sector: agriculture 1.2%, industry 65.1% (oil), services 39.1% (2014 est.)

TAX: There is no income and minimum tax for commercial

Population (2016 estimates):  4,441,448

Oman’s Tourism

Tourists are attracted for Oman for its cultural and beach resorts and activities

British and German are among the top European tourist for Oman.

The climate of Oman provided year around tourism opportunities.

North Oman: Sept-March (weather mild winter)

South Oman: May-August (tropical weather)

Tourism Law in Oman

Royal Decree No. 12/2006: Issuing the system of rules of Non-Omanis ownership of Real Estate in integrated tourism complexes

Article One: The attached system of rules shall govern Non-Omanis ownership of Real Estate in Integrated Tourism Complexes licensed by the competent parties.

Article Two: The Ministry of Housing, Electricity & Water shall, in coordination with the Ministry of Tourism, prepare the Executive Regulations of the attached system of rules. The Minister of Housing, Electricity & Water shall issue such Executive Regulations consequent to the approval of the Council of Ministers and shall take all actions necessary to implement this system of rules after coordinating with the parties concerned.

Article Three: All that contravene this Decree or contradict its Provisions shall be abrogated.

Tourism Institutional Structure in Omanblogoman1

Seminar Announcement October 21st 2016


Seminar & Presentations – October 21st

Gifford Room 5-7 pm 


The book aims to compare how tourism is shaped in different countries as a result of its governance system. Each chapter will be about 1 country describing its recent contemporarily tourism policies and how it is shaped. There will be a consistent outline (with some flexibility) to be able for each chapter to address the same issues, concerns, recommendations across wide range of countries from all over the world.


This will be the second meeting/seminar which will take place in the Gifford Room 5-7 pm on October 21st. Each Speaker will make a 10 minute presentation with 5 minutes Q&A so participants can take notes and have a holistic understanding about tourism and tourism governance in the presented countries. Then after the short presentations the group will have time to discuss, compare and contrast different countries.

Later in the day we will discuss

  • The publisher,
  • The timeline
  • The mini conference/meeting through the process where ALL participants meet.


  • 5:00 5:15     Introducing the speakers + Setting up.
  • 5:15 5:30     China – Zhong Jie, Visiting Scholar, UC Berkeley
  • 5:30 5:45     Oman – Amna Alruheili, Doctoral Candidate, UC Berkeley
  • 5:45 6:00     Spain – Mar Loren-Mendez, Professor Seville & University Visiting Scholar UCB
  • 6:15 6:30     USA  – Dean MacCannell, Professor emeritus, UC Davis
  • 6:30 6:45     Mexico – Matilde Córdoba Azcárate, Assist. Prof. UC San Diego (via Skype)
  • 6:45 7:00     Summary + Group Discussion
  • 7:00 7:30     Coming steps (publisher, dates, mini conference through the process)

Pizza & Drinks served during the group discussion