(In alphabetical order)
China – Cuba – Colombia – Ecuador – Egypt – Finland – France – Ghana – Italy – Kuwait – Mexico – Oman – Poland – Portugal – Spain – Thailand – Tunisia – Turkey – United Kingdom – United States – International Tourism Governance
Note: The country chapter is not necessarily the original country of the author
Dr. Jie Zhong is Associate Professor of Tourism and Historical Culture School in the Southwest University for Nationalities (2006- ), China. She was awarded her PhD in Tourism Management at Business School of Sichuan University (2011), and a Postdoc in Tourism Management at Business School of Yunnan University (2011-2015).
Her main field of expertise focuses on the social-cultural impact by tourism in ethnic regions of western China. She is also involved in the interdisciplinary tourism industry practice of natural and cultural tourist attractions planning, conservation and management. She teaches undergraduate and graduate Tourism Management, Ethnic Culture Tourism and Ecotourism. She has mentored and supervised the study work over hundreds of minority nationalities undergraduate and graduate students. She has published over fifty research works (papers, books, conference papers, etc.) and received many awards.
Patrick Naef is a Swiss researcher working at the Institute of Environmental Sciences in the University of Geneva. He is also a lecturer at the Institute of Geography of the University of Neuchâtel. He was previously a visiting scholar in the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. His main areas or research are associated with memory, violence, tourism, cultural heritage and mobility. His doctoral dissertation defended at the University of Geneva looks at conflicts of memory within the cultural heritage management and tourism sectors in Sarajevo, Srebrenica (Bosnia-Herzegovina) and Vukovar (Croatia). He is now conducting research on the case of Medellin in Colombia where he looks at memory construction in peripheral areas of the city. His research in Eastern Europe, South America and South-East Asia has led him to examine notions such as identity, tourism, war, nationalism and representation.
Elizabeth Vasile is an academic administrator and lecturer at UC Berkeley. She holds a Ph.D. and MS in Geography. Her research interests have focused on the interplay of spatial structures and social relations, with particular attention to the political economies of urban spatial change and the formation of identities and social movements. Her present research takes up this theme in Cuba, in two distinct sectors and time frames — early 20thC company towns, and present day tourism geographies — and examines their relationship to labor and labor identities. She directs a Berkeley study abroad program in Cuba, “Landscapes of Production, Power, and Promise,” which includes an examination of tourism as a major agent of landscape change across the island.
Gustavo is a landscape architect based in Ecuador. As a planner and designer, he incorporates the physical and psychological needs of people, while striving to create aesthetic environments adapted to the natural conditions. In recent years, he has been focusing in incorporating green infrastructure in cities. He earned his MLA at the University of California, Berkeley. Currently he is the director of Gustavo González y Asociados, a firm with experience in urban and landscape design, serving public agencies as well as private initiatives.
Amir is a doctoral candidate in Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at U C Berkeley. He has been a tourism and land use planner and sustainable development expert with fourteen years of experience working with municipal governments, international organizations, and private sector firms on site planning, ecotourism strategies, master planning and landscape planning. He always engages local communities in any planning process, especially planning for ecotourism and agro-tourism facilities. He has worked extensively in areas adjacent to national parks and coastal areas that are designated as ecotourism destinations with focus on preservation of natural and cultural resources and he has also worked in upgrading urban areas that rely on tourism as a vehicle to the revitalization of their livelihoods. His recent areas of research focus on the Red Sea coast as a tourism destination and the process of tourism development that occurs in Egypt from the constitution level through policy down to implementation, with specific interest in mapping the entire process and identifying the weak areas in the process in order to propose adequate solutions. He has worked extensively in the MENA region and Africa, with specific tourism planning in the southern region of the Red Sea in Egypt, Agro-tourism planning for different sites in Saudi Arabia, the Cradle of Human Kind Park and the Kalahari in South Africa, and Jebel Akhdar (Green Mountains) in Libya. Amir served as co-chair for the Working Group from 2013-2014.
Kristina Svels is a researcher in rural Sociology, World Heritage studies, Regional development, Tourism, Environmental Sociology, Nature resource management/governance, Second homes and recreation, and Commons. Svels started her studies of rural sociology in 2006 and obtained her master’s degree in Sociology and International Law (2008), her licentiate degree in Rural studies in 2011, and she is currently a PhD candidate (2016) with the thesis entitled: World Heritage management and tourism development: A study of public involvement and contested ambitions in the World Heritage Kvarken Archipelago Scandinavia. Kristina has published several articles related to World Heritage and tourism, including: “Solving landscape related conflicts through transnational learning? The case of transboundary Nordic World Heritage sites” (2016); “World Heritage, Tourism and Community Involvement: A Comparative Study of the High Coast (Sweden) and Kvarken Archipelago (Finland), Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism (2015); “Governance of the World Heritage Kvarken Archipelago, environmental protection and tourism impact in Sites du patrimoine et tourisme” (2010). Her publications (submitted in 2016) also concern Second homes and the recreational landscape as well as Destination development. Svels’ research focuses on the local perspective in transnational and national tourism issues involving resident participation in the decision making process as aligned with governance protocol for impact on communities considering natural resource use for tourism. Svels draws on her experience from local to transnational laws and their application during tourism schemes to improve economic development where several stakeholders may have differing perspectives for optimal management. Kristina supports transnational learning as part of an efficient backdrop to overcome new challenges in local areas affected by international tourism.
Bertram M. Gordon
Bertram is Professor of European History at Mills College in Oakland, California. He is General Secretary of the International Commission for the History of Travel and Tourism and serves as co-editor of the H-Travel internet discussion network. A core member of the Tourism Studies Working Group at the University of California, Berkeley, he is also a member of the Journal of Tourism History editorial board. He regularly teaches a course “Men, Women, and Travel: Tourism in Europe since the Renaissance.” A specialist on World War II France, he has written on war-related tourism in that country as well as the emergence of “mass tourism” and Mediterranean tourism.
His books include Collaborationism in France during the Second World War (1980) and The Historical Dictionary of World War II France: The Occupation, Vichy and the Resistance, 1938-1946 (1998). He also co-edited “Food and France: What Food Studies Can Teach Us about History,” a special issue of French Historical Studies, 38:2 (April 2015) and is currently writing a book, Tourism and the Tourist Imagination in World War II France: From the German Conquest through the Creation of Memory, 1940-present.
Tometi Gbedema is a currently Community & Regional Development (CRD) lecturer in the Department of Human Ecology at UC Davis. He holds an M.S. degree in Community Development and a Ph.D. in Human Geography from UC Davis. His M.A. degree in Translation with French and English as his working languages, was obtained from Université du Bénin in Lomé, Togo, West Africa. Director of The Otwetiri Project (www.otwetiri.org), the nonprofit organization he launched in 2007 to improve the educational environment for children in underdevelopment nations, Gbedema also serves as an Adjunct Professor in Geography at Sonoma State University (SSU) teaching World Regional Geography and Geography of Africa, South of the Sahara classes. His community work and services in his department and on the UC Davis Campus led to his being honored with a 2005 UC Davis Community Service Award. Gbedema is the author of the book titled NIMBY: Natural Resource Development Issues – Tensions behind Energy Resource Development, Growth and Preservation of Small Town Values. This work focuses on the small city of Rio Vista in California. This work was published in 2010 by Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP) in Koln, Germany. He authored “Diaspora Heritage: Misprision, Antipathy and Hostility between Locals and Diasporic Groups in Ghana”, In: Tourism and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Issues and Local Realities, a Case Study published in 2015 by Taylor & Francis Group, Routledge, in the U.K. and edited by Marina Novelli. He co-authored a chapter on an Agrotourism titled, “The Nexus Between Agriculture and Tourism in Ghana: A Case of Underexploited Development Potential”, in the book Tourism and Agriculture: New Geographies of Consumption, Production and Rural Restructuring edited by Emeritus Professor Janet Momsen and Rebecca Torres by Routledge (2011). Gbedema’s Ph.D. dissertation work on Diaspora Africa and heritage tourism has also been published as a dissertation work by UMI-Proquest Dissertation Publishing in Ann-Arbor, Michigan.
Monica studied Humanities at the universities of Udine and Göttingen and Methodology of Social Research at the University of Florence. In 2007 she obtained her PhD with a thesis in Sociology of Tourism, focusing on the community role in tourism development in the Alpine region. She has been collaborating with the Chair of Sociology at the University of Udine for more than ten years; currently she is Lecturer of Economic Sociology (within the degree course of Integreted Communication for Businesses and Organizations) and Methodology of Social Research (within the Master Course Euroculture).
Her research interests include tourism development and its sociocultural impacts, the role of local communities in the creation of tourist imaginary, alternative modes of consumption, alcohol consumption among youngsters, Montessori education in adolescence.
Amina Alkandari is a PhD Candidate in Architecture with a Designated Emphasis in Global Metropolitan Studies from the University of California at Berkeley, specialized in History of Architecture and contemporary urbanization in developing countries with a focus on the Middle East and the Arab Gulf specifically. She received her B.ARCH from University of Miami, M.ARCH in Architecture and Urban Design Studies from Syracuse University, and M.S in Architecture from the University of California at Berkeley (2010). Her Ph.D. dissertation focuses on Nation-Building and Modernity in Kuwait from the Early 1900s to the present.
Matilde Córdoba Azcárate
Matilde Córdoba Azcárate is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Communication and a Research Fellow at the Center for US-Mexican Studies at the University of California, San Diego. Her research uses a political economy approach to understand the relations between tourism, socio-spatial organization and development in contemporary Southern Mexico. She is currently conducting a multi-sited ethnography exploring how mainstream and alternative tourism ventures, which have been promoted as sustainable development tools for impoverished Maya communities, have become integral in the reproduction of inequality. Her research focuses on the ways in which local population, governments, experts and tourists acquiesce, contest or reconfigure patterns of uneven tourism development evincing the emergence of alternative spatial imaginations, urban configurations and social relations. Her research has been supported by The Fulbright Commission; the Spanish National Research Plans; the Oxford Program for the Future of Cities.
Amna Alruheili is PhD candidate at the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning. Her research focuses on understanding the impacts of climate change on coastal areas in Oman including infrastructure and coastal tourism development. Her approach is through modeling various Sea Level Rise scenarios to quantify the infrastructural damage resulted from natural events.
PhD (Department of the Theory of Leisure and Tourism, University of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland)
Assistant professor at the Department of the Theory of Leisure and Tourism at the University of Physical Education in Cracow; lecturer in two international projects conducted in collaboration between the Czech, Slovak and Polish universities; visiting professor at the University of Primorska in Slovenia, Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences in Finland, Institut des Recherches et d’Études Supérieures du Tourisme, Université Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne. She focuses on anthropological aspects of tourism, cultural heritage tourism, dissonant heritage in Central and Eastern Europe, tourism promotion, semiotics of tourism, gender issues and qualitative research. The author of several book chapters, journal articles, conference proceedings and reviews, published i.e. in Folia Turistica, Cultural Tourism, Tourism, Culture and Communication and Annals of Tourism Research; co-editor, with prof. R. Winiarski, of the monograph on anthropology of tourism (in Polish) which will appear in 2016. Currently she is finishing a research project on cultural patterns of leisure and tourism and her book based on its results is forthcoming. She is a member of the editorial board of a scientific journal Folia Turistica.
PhD (Institute of Intercultural Studies, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland)
Magdalena Banaszkiewicz, a cultural anthropologists and an assistant professor in the Institute of Intercultural Studies at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. She graduated both in Russian Studies and Cultural Studies. The main topics of her research are cultural tourism and heritage in the Central and Eastern Europe. Recently, she has been exploring dissonances connected with the process of tourist commodification of so called ‘socialist/communist heritage’. A visiting professor at the University of Rochester (USA), University of Sophia (Bulgaria), the European University Viadrina (Germany). Her monograph The Intercultural Dialogue in Tourism. The case of Polish and Russian relationships was published in 2011 by Jagiellonian University Press. Since then, she has published several book chapters and journal articles and reviews (i.e. in Folia Turistica, International Journal of Cultural and Cultural Change, International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, Politeja, Via@). She is an editorial board member of Turystyka Kulturowa (“Cultural Tourism”). Recently, she has been working with Sabina Owsianowska on the collective volume ‘After the Iron Curtain. Anthropology of tourism in Central and Eastern Europe’, due to be published in Lexington Books in 2017.
Joana Castro e Almeida
Assistant Professor at Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), University of Lisbon, Portugal. PhD in Territorial Engineering (2013) (Title: “Tourism versus territory collaborative conflict management: The Troia-Melides Coast, Portugal”), MSc in Regional and Urban Planning (2004), and graduation from IST (1997). Courses taught: Urban and Regional Planning; Property Development, Valuation and Management; Projects and Procurement; Strategic Planning and Urban Governance; etc. Research Projects: Project “PERCOM – Equity and efficiency in the urbanization process: a land readjustment execution model”, funded by FCT (reference PTDC / AUR-URB / 120509/2010) (2013/16)
Mar Loren-Mendez is a Professor of History and Theory of Architecture and Cities at Seville University, Spain. She is the director of the Research Group Contemporary City, Architecture and Heritage. A specialist on Coastal Transformation and Tourism, she founded a research line on tourism within the group in 2005. Since then she has directed different projects such as “Costa del Sol. Architecture, City and Territory,” (2006-2008), grant-aided by the Andalusian Ministry of Development –published in 2014 Coastal-graphies- or “Registry of Andalusian Contemporary Architecture,” (2004-2007) (direction of Malaga coastal team) with the Andalusian Ministry of Culture. Both projects received a price from Malaga Board of Architects. She focuses on the urban transformation of the Costa del Sol, from the territorial to the architectural scale, with a special emphasis on its spatial history and heritage assessment. Between 2010 and 2014 she also designed, taught and directed the academic and research Module on Coastal Transformation, urban development, heritage and cultural landscape at the European’s Master Program “Architecture Studium Generale,” BTU, Cottbus, Germany. Since 2014, she is the coordinator of the research topic Littoral, Tourism, Infrastructure and Sustainability of the International Doctoral Program on Architecture at Seville University. In the last years, she has focused on the heritage characterization of the coast as an infrastructural corridor. Between 2014 and 2015 she has directed “The coastal N-340 roadway corridor as the historical axis of the Andalusian Mediterranean littoral: methodology for its heritage characterization and sustainable regeneration,” grant-aided by the European Regional Development Fund. This project has developed an online heritage database integrated with GIS. She has presented and published her work nationally and internationally. Her last publication has appeared in Geographical Review (October, 2016).
Louise A. Mozingo is Professor & Chair of the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, faculty of the Graduate Group in Urban Design, and faculty and former Director of the interdisciplinary American Studies program at UC Berkeley. Her research concerns two areas: the history of the American designed landscape and sustainable environmental design and planning. This research has taken a variety of forms including books, book chapters, scholarly articles, criticism, research reports, design and planning documents, and exhibitions. In 2009, Mozingo founded a research center within the College of Environmental Design, the Center for Resource Efficient Communities (CREC) dedicated to interdisciplinary research regarding resource efficient urban design, planning, and policy.
Wilasinee Suksawang is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, University of California, Berkeley. She is also a faculty member of the Department of Landscape Architecture at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Having a bachelor degree in Architecture and a master’s in Landscape Architecture, her consistent research interests are in the field of the interrelation between people and their environments, public perception and appreciation of landscapes, visual landscape quality analysis and assessment, landscape and ecological aesthetics, and ecological design and planning. She had worked in collaboration with Thailand’s Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) to develop the first visual impact assessment manual for building construction projects in the country. She has also worked with several governmental, non-governmental and local agencies to research landscape and visual resource management and planning for both natural and cultural tourist districts in Thailand.
Habib Saidi is Professor of Ethnology and Museology in the History Department as well as the director of the Institute of Cultural Heritage, at Laval University, Quebec, Canada. He is a regular member of the Center for Research in Literature, Arts, and Traditions and of the Cultural Heritage Institute of Laval University. Habib Saidi’s research focuses on the interaction between heritage and tourism, and more particularly on how this pair contributes to the definition of identity in countries open to international tourism. He is currently directing a research project financed by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) that focuses on Québec City and Tunis in their roles as national capitals, world heritage cities, and tourist destinations. Professor Saidi is also interested in issues of appropriation of the heritage in the Mediterranean countries, as well as in the methods and approaches of heritage awareness. He was a visiting scholar at the University of California at Berkeley, at the Universities of Barcelona and Valencia in Spain, and at the Paris-Sorbonne-University in Abu Dhabi. Habib Saidi has published articles in major English and French top journals of his fields of study: Ethnologies, Anthropology and Society, French Ethnology, The Journal of Postcolonial Studies, The Journal of North African Studies, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, Current Issues in Tourism, Archivio anthropological Mediterraneo, Anatolia: International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, etc. He edited a book entitled Capital Cities and Heritage in the Globalization Era (2012), in collaboration with Sylvie Sagnes. He also authored recently a new book entitled Identités de façade et zones d’ombre: tourisme, patrimoine et politiques en Tunisie (2016).
Dr. Çiftci’s doctoral dissertation title is “An Empirical Analysis of Crisis Management Practices in the Tourism Establishments In Terms Of Organizational Learning and Business Performance” and her MA dissertation title is “The Effects of Brand Image on Consumer’s Destination Choice”. She is in the group on Crisis Management and Tourism, at Namil Kemal University, in Tekirdag, Turkey. Her interest areas are crisis management in the hospitality and tourism industry, Turkish tourism and sustainable tourism.
İsmail Kervankıran is an Assistant Professor at Suleyman Demirel University in the province of Isparta in Turkey. After completing his undergraduate and graduate educations at Marmara University, he received his PhD from Afyon Kocatepe University in 2011 with a dissertation titled “Evaluation of Primarily Natural, Historical and Cultural Resources of Afyonkarahisar Province in Terms of Sustainable Tourism”. His major research interests are sustainable development, sustainable tourism, GIS and its use in tourism geography. He is currently studying the sustainability of tourism; environmental, social and economic impacts of tourism; and how tourism is perceived by tourists and local people in Turkey. Dr. Kervankıran has published many articles, book chapters and conference proceedings. He has participated in many national and international conferences and presented his studies. He presented a paper titled “The Place of Turkey in the Global Tourism Sector” at the AAG’s (American Association of Geographers) 2013 annual meeting in Los Angeles, and another titled “Contribution of the five-year development plans to tourism in Turkey” AAG’s 2014 annual meeting in Tampa. He also presented the paper “The Development of Museums in Turkey, Their Contribution to Tourism and Regional Differences” 2016 annual meeting in San Francisco, California.
Azade Ozlem CALIK
Dr. Calik received her Ph.D. at Gazi University in Ankara. From 1998 to 2003 she worked at travel agencies as a tour operator and a tourist guide trainee. She earned her Tourism Guidance License after she graduated from Gazi University in 2003. Since 2004, she has been working as a lecturer at Ankara University, Tourism Guidance Department. She has articles, projects about tourism management and tourism guidance. She is the member of Ankara Tourist Guide Association. She has a blog about travel called ”Travel4ever” and a Facebook Platform Founder of Tourism Career, more than 1000 people are involved from the sector and Universities.
- UNITED KINGDOM
Rosalinda Ruiz Scarfuto
Rosalinda Ruiz Scarfuto is a graduate of UCI in Social Ecology, and a PhD candidate for University of Sunderland, UK. She has been researching literary tourism in terms of historical routes and forthcoming trends for the new generation of active, literate and independent travelers. Her masters in literary routes from University of Alcala, Spain delved into the governmental and private sectors in this scope of tourism management and initiatives. Currently she is working in the Lake District in England with cultural heritage walking and its contribution to the artistic creative process. The comparative studies between European frameworks and USA tourist boards during her master’s research project were considerably insightful in terms of the differences that arise in tourism sectors across the globe. Furthermore, Spain and the UK differ even within the European models. She has published and given seminars on the subject extensively from Harvard to Florence.
- UNITED STATES
Professor Emeritus Dean MacCannell lectures extensively in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. He is a founding member of the faculty in the new graduate sociology program at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and distinguished foreign faculty in the graduate program in Tourism Studies in AILUN, Sardinia. He led a three day workshop on the intersection of philosophy and travel in Berlin in June, 2013, and has recently been invited to teach in China.
The fifth edition of his classic (1976) book, The Tourist was published by the University of California Press in 2013. Recently publishers in China, Japan, and Italy have added to the list of translations of The Tourist.
His book The Ethics of Sightseeing was published University of California Press in 2011 and has received positive reviews world-wide. This new book has path-breaking chapters on urban design and the landscape: “The Urban Symbolic” and “Looking through the Landscape.” He frequently contributes to intellectual, art, and academic journals in the United States and Europe. Professor Emeritus MacCannell is an active presence in San Francisco art circles, most recently contributing an original work (with Juliet Flower MacCannell) to the SOMARTS Gallery Day of the Dead show. He is a Trustee of the Elizabeth Ann Chamberlain Estate in support of Bay Area artists and arts organizations.
Kanokwalee Suteethorn is a PhD candidate at the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning with a Designated Emphasis in Global Metropolitan Studies at UC Berkeley. She is also a faculty member of the Department of Landscape Architecture at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok. She had worked as a committee for Thai association of Landscape Architects (TALA) and worked with the Bangkok Big Tree in Thailand. Her current research focused on cultural values of urban forests. She is interested in exploring the way in which religious rituals, spiritual beliefs, and other community involvement activities turn intangible values of trees into the sacredness of places and how the temple landscapes affected urban forests citywide.
Judith Bopp has just completed her PhD in Cultural Geography at the University of Cologne, Germany. Her dissertation project examined the emerging organic food and urban gardening scenes in Bangkok in the context of New Social Movements. The research based on three observations made during her field work in Thailand: raising public health concerns, the vulnerability of rural farmers’ livelihoods, and urbanites’ aspirations of alternative lifestyles.
Her fields of interests are in food anthropology, urban studies, rural development, and social movements. During her studies, she discovered WWOOFing (World-Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms) as a way of ecotourism that allows practical experience in sustainable agriculture while learning about the culture of the hosting countries. She has made her own WWOOF experience in Asia, Australia, South America and Europe. She is currently based in Germany.
- INTERNATIONAL TOURISM GOVERNANCE
Nelson Graburn (Co-chair 2014-2017 TSWG) was educated in Natural Sciences and Anthropology at Cambridge, McGill, and University of Chicago. He is emeritus professor of socio-cultural anthropology at UC Berkeley, Curator of North American Ethnology at the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, and co-chair of the Canadian Studies Program. He also recently retired from an appointment as Senior Professor at the International Institute for Culture, Tourism and Development at London Metropolitan University. Professor Graburn served as co-chair of the Tourism Studies Working Group in 2010-2013, and was a driving force in the organization of our 2011 conference, Tourism Imaginaries/Imaginaires Touristiques.
Prof. Graburn has taught at Berkeley since 1964, with visiting appointments at the National Museum of Civilization, Ottawa; Le Centre des Hautes Etudes Touristiques, Aix-en-Provence; the National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) in Osaka; and the Research Center in Korean Studies, National University of Kyushu, in Fukuoka, Japan; the Universidade Nacional, Rio Grande del Sol, Porto Alegre, Brazil, the Nationalities University, Beijing, and Beijing International University. He is a founding member of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism, the Research Committee on Tourism (RC-50) of the International Sociological Association, and the Tourism Studies Working Group, and serves on the editorial board (for anthropology) of Annals of Tourism Research.
Prof. Graburn’s recent research has focused on the study of art, tourism, museums, and the expression and representation of identity. He has carried out ethnographic research with the Inuit (and Naskapi) of Canada (and Alaska and Greenland) since 1959. He is now working with the Inuit cultural organizations in Nunavik and Nunavut, Canada, on aspects of cultural preservation and autonomy, and on contemporary Inuit arts, including film and video-making. He has done research on tourism and social change in Japan since 1974, and with students and colleagues on tourism in China since 1991.